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Thomas Smith
Thomas Smith

Monolith ((TOP))

Rockfax DescriptionPractically ungradeable - it will be impossible for the claustrophobic. Start below a deep slot that runs up and left across the cliff in steps.1) 9m. Head up into the abyss and move up and left behind the monolith to re-emerge on its left below another chimney.2) 9m. The next chimney is tighter and leads to a ledge below a continuation of the same chimney.3) 13m. A fearsome chimney which stops many attempts. Face right and squeeze into the chimney. It gets wider if you go deeper and you can struggle upwards for daylight and air!3a) DeSelincourt's Variation, VS. 13m. For those who didn't manage the chimney. From the ledge, step right and climb to a mantel onto the quartz slab.4) 9m. Above the quartz slab is one final chimney. Thankfully, it is easy in comparison to the ones below. Rockfax


Ceramic wall-flow monoliths, which are derived from the flow-through cellular supports used for catalytic converters, became the most common type of diesel filter substrate. They are distinguished, among other diesel filter designs, by high surface area per unit volume and by high filtration efficiencies. Monolithic diesel filters consist of many small parallel channels, typically of square cross-section, running axially through the part. Diesel filter monoliths are obtained from the flow-through monoliths by plugging channels as shown in Figure 1. Adjacent channels are alternatively plugged at each end in order to force the diesel aerosol through the porous substrate walls which act as a mechanical filter. To reflect this flow pattern, the substrates are referred to as wall-flow monoliths.

Wall-flow monoliths are typically extrusions made from porous ceramic materials. Materials most commonly used in commercial filters include cordierite and silicon carbide (SiC). Cordierite is a synthetic ceramic developed for flow-through catalyst substrates and subsequently adapted for the filter application. Cordierite filters have been used mostly in heavy-duty engine applications. Silicon carbide has been used for a long time in a number of industries such as semiconductors, abrasives, or high temperature/molten metal contact materials. In the mid-2000s, SiC was introduced as a filter material for diesel passenger cars and remains common in light-duty applications. Another commercial filter material, aluminum titanate, is also used primarily for light-duty diesel vehicles.

If you look at your map you'll have waypoints to guide you to the next monolith, which is handy, but it's worth noting that each of the monoliths also fires a bright white laser across the sky of the planet. These lasers converge on one point that seems to lead to a whole lot of nothing right now, but you can trace the lasers back to the monoliths you need to find if you want to track them down in a more organic way.

When you reach the next monolith you'll have to fight to clear it of enemies - easy enough, just remember to take cover as needed and don't forget to spend your skill points from levelling up to enhance your powers. When you're done, you'll be faced with a console and another little puzzle.

Jump down and hit the main console again. The puzzle flashes up: and this time it's doable! We've got a dedicated page that explains to you just how this monolith decryption mini-game works, so if it confuses you and you want to do it legitimately head on over there and read those tips. Basically it's sudoku, though: each grid and line can't contain the same icon more than once.

Once the second monolith is activated our job is to head to the third, obviously. This one is a little bit more complicated still - it's surrounded by a force field that you can't penetrate and is surrounded by a Kett base. You'll need to storm this base and kill the Kett inside in order to deactivate the force fields and reach the monolith. Head south-east following your waypoint to reach the base.

With this done, head to the final monolith. The score is the same here as before: whip out your scanner, scan the console, then follow the cables to find the two glyphs. They're both on the roof of nearby pillars. Once scanned you can interact with the main console.

This time there's no puzzle - you'll mercifully just be given immediate access to the monolith and activate it. Once this monolith is active, major changes are afoot here on Eos. It's time to check out whatever it is the monolith activated. Prepare yourself... we're heading for our first vault.

Reproducible fabrication of the hierarchically porous monolithic silica in a large volume exceeding 1000 mL has been established. By the hydrothermal enlargement of the fully accessible small pores to exceed 50 nm in diameter, the capillary force emerged on solvent evaporation was dramatically reduced, which allowed the preparation of crack-free monoliths with evaporative solvent removal under an ambient pressure. The local temperature inhomogeneity within a reaction vessel in a large volume was precisely controlled to cancel the heat evolved by the hydrolysis reaction of tetramethoxysilane and that consumed to melt ice cubes dispersed in the solution, resulting in large monolithic silica pieces with improved structural homogeneity. Homogeneity of the pore structure was confirmed, both on macro- and mesoscales, using SEM, mercury intrusion, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements. Furthermore, the deviations in chromatographic performance were examined by evaluating multiple smaller monolithic columns prepared from the monolithic silica pieces cut from different parts of a large monolith. All the daughter columns thus prepared exhibited comparable performances to each other to prove the overall homogeneity of the mother monolith. Preliminary results on high-speed separation of peptides and proteins by the octadecylsilylated silica monolith of the above production have also been demonstrated.

Similar monoliths have ignited public interest around the world since one was first spotted in the desert of Utah in November last year, before disappearing nine days later. Another structure followed on a mountain in California before others were reported in over 30 countries around the world including Romania, France, Poland, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Colombia.

While in each case no one knows for certain who is behind the installations, someone claiming to be the artist in India has given an interview to a national publication on a condition of anonymity, saying that she agreed to the project because of the conversation that the monoliths have provoked.

A crack discovered in one of spillway monoliths at Wanapum Dam led to a need to stabilize the structure and prevent further damage. Grant County Public Utility District worked to investigate the problem, install anchors to stabilize the dam, and return the powerhouse to full operations.

The spillway has 12 radial gates, each 50 ft wide by 67 ft high. A concrete stilling basin slab provides energy dissipation and hydraulic control (see Figure 1 on page 12). Spillway monoliths 2 through 12 are 65 ft wide, have a 15-ft-wide center pier with half a gate bay on each side, and are separated from adjacent monoliths by contraction joints. Ogee height is nominally 55 ft but deepens to 75 ft on the right end. Monoliths 1 and 13 comprise the right and left ends of the spillway, respectively, and contain half a gate bay. A 5-ft-wide by 10-ft-tall grouting and drainage gallery runs the length of the spillway.

Spillway remediation and post-tensioned anchor design began by evaluating Monolith 4 using ANSYS, a nonlinear, 3D finite element analysis (FEA) model. Because the cracked monolith allowed hydrostatic pressure within the ogee body, the design needed to keep the crack closed and prohibit reservoir pressure from migrating further downstream. Exploratory holes drilled into the ogee by Nicholson revealed that the crack extended along the construction lift joint and then sloped downstream, following a path below the vertical pier reinforcing terminations (see Figure 2 on page 14).

Thermal analysis was performed using the ANSYS FEA approach to determine seasonal temperature variations in the spillway monoliths. Ambient air and reservoir water temperatures were incorporated. The thermal model was calibrated without the damage with respect to historical seasonal measurements from pier surveys as part of the validation process. A thermal crack of a specific depth was incorporated in the model after the thermal calibration was completed.

Temperature effects could result in cracking along a lift joint, which may alter the uplift distribution pattern. The results of the heat flow and stress analyses indicate the monolith experiences annual cyclic thermal stresses, which vary from upstream face compressive stresses during warm weather to tensile stresses during cold weather (that overwhelm the static stresses).

Key requirements for static stability for the Wanapum spillway were that force (sliding) and moment (overturning) equilibrium be maintained with adequate factors of safety per FERC guidelines. It was critical that the design address the failure mechanisms theorized to cause the spillway movement, e.g., thermally induced tensile operating stresses on the upstream face of the ogee (estimated to be 250 psi during the winter) and tensile stresses on the monolith as a result of normal operating loads (35 psi).

Three post-tensioned, multi-strand rock anchors at the upstream end of each pier of the undamaged monoliths (see Figure 3 on page 16) and two post-tensioned bar rock anchors at the upstream side of the ogee were required to satisfy overturning and sliding stability requirements for operating load conditions. These anchors limit total downstream movement to about 1 in at the base during the evaluated seismic events. Post-earthquake stability requirements per FERC guidelines have also been satisfied. 041b061a72


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